Evening On Call 

A few weeks ago I took part in an evening on call simulation. It was me, a bleep and fake scenarios across different wards. It was just an hour and it was definitely a positive experience but boy, was I glad when it was over. Lessons learned: The bleep is not a walkie talkie. You don't … Continue reading Evening On Call 

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Hydrocephalus

 Hydrocephalus Definition: enlargement of the cerebral ventricular system. Subdivisable into obstructive and non-obstructive, or communicating and non-communicating. Aetiology/ risk factors: -Abnormal accumulation of CSF in the ventricles, leading to raised intracranial pressure, caused by: Impaired outflow of CSF from the ventricular system (obstructive/ non-communicating): -lesions of the third ventricle, fourth ventricle, cerebral aqueduct (inc. TB, neurocysticercosis) … Continue reading Hydrocephalus

Guillain-Barre Syndrome

Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS) Definition: an acute, predominantly motor, inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy Aetiology/ risk factors: -occurs a few weeks (1-3) after an infection e.g. Camylobacter jejuni (from undercooked chicken) CMV, mycoplasma, herpes zoster, HIV, EBV post-vaccinations -may occur with lymphoma or Hodgkin's disease -infective trigger causes antibodies which react with self-antigen on myelin or neurones -no cause found in 40% (idiopathic) … Continue reading Guillain-Barre Syndrome

Myasthenia Gravis

Myasthenia Gravis Definition: an autoimmune disease affecting the neuromuscular junction producing weakness of skeletal muscles Aetiology/ risk factors: -Mediated by autoantibodies against the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChR), interfering with the neuromuscular transmission via depletion of working post-synaptic receptor sites. -Both B and T cells are implicated. Associations: < 50 years- women, other autoimmune diseases, thymic … Continue reading Myasthenia Gravis

Huntington’s Disease

Huntington's Disease Definition: incurable, progressive, autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder characterised by progressive chorea and dementia, typically commencing in middle age. Aetiology/ risk factors: -Genetic, autosomal dominant = extensive expansion of CAG repeat on chromosome 4, huntingtin gene which codes for the protein huntingtin = toxic gain of function of protein -Leads to atrophy and neuronal loss of striatum … Continue reading Huntington’s Disease