Evening On Call 

A few weeks ago I took part in an evening on call simulation. It was me, a bleep and fake scenarios across different wards. It was just an hour and it was definitely a positive experience but boy, was I glad when it was over. Lessons learned: The bleep is not a walkie talkie. You don't … Continue reading Evening On Call 

Cardiac Arrest

I know I say this pretty much most posts, but this is really super important. Like super. I’ve never been in a cardiac arrest situation, never seen one, except on TV, but it’s good to know what to do should the need arise, even if you’re not a healthcare professional. Cardiac Arrest Definition: acute cessation of cardiac … Continue reading Cardiac Arrest


Before I started medical school I volunteered at a nursing home full of elderly people with dementia. It was honestly heart-breaking. I would go in and introduce myself to the same people every Saturday. There was this one lady who would always tell me about the buttons on her cardigan and how she didn't like her … Continue reading Dementia


Neurofibromatosis Definition: an autosomal dominant genetic disorder affecting cells of neural crest origin (e.g. melanocytes, craniofacial cartilage and bone, smooth muscle, peripheral and enteric neurones and glia), resulting in development of multiple neurocutaneous tumours. Type 1 neurofibromatosis (NF1, von Recklinghausen's disease)- characterised by peripheral and spinal neurofibromas, multiple café-au-lait spots, freckling, optic nerve glioma, Lisch … Continue reading Neurofibromatosis

Wernicke’s Encephalopathy

Wernicke's Encephalopathy Definition: Thiamine deficiency with a classical triad of confusion, ataxia, and ophthalmoplegia. Aetiology/ risk factors: -Thiamine (Vitamin B1) deficiency -inadequate dietary intake -reduced GI absorption -impaired utilisation = focal areas of brain damage, including periaqueductal punctate haemorrhages -Often seen in chronic alcoholism -Also: eating disorders, malnutrition, prolonged vomiting e.g. with chemo, GI malignancy, … Continue reading Wernicke’s Encephalopathy


 Hydrocephalus Definition: enlargement of the cerebral ventricular system. Subdivisable into obstructive and non-obstructive, or communicating and non-communicating. Aetiology/ risk factors: -Abnormal accumulation of CSF in the ventricles, leading to raised intracranial pressure, caused by: Impaired outflow of CSF from the ventricular system (obstructive/ non-communicating): -lesions of the third ventricle, fourth ventricle, cerebral aqueduct (inc. TB, neurocysticercosis) … Continue reading Hydrocephalus